GRAMMAR

Transformation of Sentence: Compound to Complex and Simple

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Rule-1: But যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Though বা Although দ্বারা Complex এবং Inspite of ও Despite দ্বারা Simple Sentence এ রূপান্তর করা হয়। Simple করার সময় Adjective কে Noun -এ রূপান্তর করা যায়।

Example :

1. Compound: He is poor but he is honest.

Complex: Though he is poor, he is honest.

Simple: In spite of (his) being poor, he is honest

Or, In spite of (his) poverty, he is honest.

2. Compound: He was terribly unhappy but he did not blame anybody.

Complex: Although he was terribly unhappy he did not blame anybody.

Simple: In spite of (his) being terribly unhappy, he did not blame anybody.

Or, In spite of (his) terrible unhappiness, he did not blame anybody.

3. Compound: The old man has seven children but he lives alone.

 Complex: Though the old man has seven children, he lives alone.

Simple: In spite of having seven children, the old man lives alone.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. Although the man has vast riches, he wants more.
  2. In spite of being healthy, he is lazy.
  3. Though she is black, she is beautiful.
  4. He ran fast but he could not catch the train.
  5. Though the man looks cruel, he is kind.
  6. He was sincere but could not succeed.
  7. Though Karim was tired, he went to walk.
  8. He is weak but he can speak loudly.
  9. In spite of intelligence, the girl could not shine in life.
  10. I called him but he did not respond.
  11. Though he is healthy, he does not work at all.
  12. In spite of his working hard, he could not reach his goal.

 

Rule-2: Or যুক্ত Compound Sentence (Imperative Sentence) কে Unless you/If you do not…. যুক্ত  (negative), Sub +…. দ্বারা Complex এবং Without (you) + Verb + ing…, Sub +… দ্বারা Simple Sentence এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: Study hard or fail.

Complex: If you do not study hard, you will fail.

Or, Unless you study hard, you will fail.

Simple: Without studying hard, you will fail.

2. Compound: Leave this room or I will compel you to do so.

Complex: If you do not leave this room, I will compel you to do so.

Or, Unless you leave this room, I will compel you to do so.

Simple: Without you leaving this room, I will compel you to do so.

3. Compound:Do as I suggest you or you will suffer.

Complex: If you do not do as I suggest you, you will suffer.

Or,   Unless you do as I suggest you, you will suffer.

Simple: Without doing as I suggest you, you will suffer.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. If you do not work hard, you will not succeed.
  2. Without eating a balanced diet, you cannot live well.
  3. Have a visa or you cannot go abroad.
  4. Unless he reads attentively, he will not do well in the exam.
  5. Without being punctual, you cannot prosper in life.
  6. Read attentively or you cannot pass the exam.
  7. Without walking fast you will be late.
  8. If you do not write much, you cannot write well.
  9. Walk fast or you cannot catch the train.
  10. Unless you leave the place at once, you will be punished.

Rule-3: Verb ….. and যুক্ত Compound Sentence (Imperative Sentence) কে If you যুক্ত (affirmative), Sub +… দ্বারা Complex এবং By + Verb + ing দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: Follow my example and you will feel better.

Complex: If you follow my example, you will feel better.

Simple: By following my examples, you will feel better.

2. Compound: Do it and you will be punished.

Complex: If you do it, you will be punished.

Simple: By doing it, you will be punished.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. If you practice regularly, you can play well.
  2. By taking medicine you will be cured.
  3. Drink milk and you can get vitamins.
  4. If you work hard, you will be succeeded in life.
  5. Read newspaper and you can know about many things.
  6. By reading attentively, you can make a good result.
  7. Be honest and you will be happy.
  8. If you read, you will learn.
  9. Take regular exercise and you can be healthy.

Rule-4: Subject একই এবং And দ্বারা যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex এবং Verb + ing …., Sub + …. দ্বারা Simple এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: We went to his office and we found him absent.

Complex: When we went to his office, we found him absent.

Simple: Going to his office, we found him absent.

2. Compound: The thief saw the police and he ran away.

Complex: As the thief saw the police, he ran away.

Simple: Seeing the police, the thief ran away.

3. Compound: The students saw the headmaster and they entered the class.

Complex: Since the students saw the headmaster, they entered the class.

Simple: Seeing the headmaster, the students entered the class.

Exercise Practice :

  1. As he was lazy, he could not prosper.
  2. Being tired, he refused to go.
  3. He received your letter and he was glad.
  4. Going home I found my mother asleep.
  5. He went home when he completed his work.
  6. As I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.
  7. Since the water was dirty, I could not drink it.
  8. She had heard the news and she cried out in sorrow.
  9. Having done the work, he went away.
  10. When he had seen a horrible sight, he got frightened.
  11. I went there and I heard him talking.
  12. As I closed the door, I went out for a walk.
  13. Hearing a noise, he woke up.
  14. I forgot him and went out.

Rule-5: Subject আলাদা এবং And দ্বারা যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex এবং At the time of + possessive + verb + ing …., Sub + ….. অথবা Sub+ having/ being + ….. Sub + ….. দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: He woke up and it was raining.

Complex: When he woke up, it was raining.

Simple: At the time of his waking up, it was raining.

2. Compound: The marriage ceremony was over and the guests were all going to the feast.

Complex: When the marriage ceremony was over, the guests were all going to the feast.

Simple: The marriage ceremony being over, the guests were all going to the feast.

3. Compound: The sun had set and we went home.

Complex: As the sun had set, we went home.

Simple: The sun having set, we went home.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. The game was over and the spectators went home.
  2. The sum being hard, I couldn’t solve it.
  3. Since the weather was very bad, we didn’t go home.
  4. The sun having set, we stopped our playing.
  5. As the day was stormy, many people couldn’t return home.
  6. The water being hot, I could not drink it.
  7. When the lunch was over, the lady went away.
  8. Being the water salty, the sailors cannot drink it.
  9. I had showed a true love for all living things and I was saved.
  10. I was admitted to school when I was five.
  11. My mutton chop arrived and she took me to task.

Rule-6: Very …. and যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে so ….. that + Sub + any tense …. দ্বারা Complex এবং too/enough …. to + V1 ….. দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Note: Sentence টি Negative হলে Simple -এর ক্ষেত্রে ‘too’ ব্যবহৃত হবে এবং Affirmative হলে, ‘enough’ ব্যবহৃত হবে।

Example :

1. Compound: He is very honest and he will not accept bribe.

Complex: He is so honest that he will not accept bribe.

Simple: He is too honest to accept bribe.

2. Compound: The news is very good and it can not be true.

Complex: The news is so good that it can not be true.

Simple: The news is too good to be true.

3. Compound: She was very intelligent and she got first class.

Complex: She was so intelligent that she got first class.

Simple: She was enough intelligent to get first class.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. Javed was so exhausted that he was lying down for a sleep.
  2. He is too weak to walk.
  3. The boy is very intelligent and he can understand his lesson.
  4. The girl was so dull that she could not do the sum.
  5. The boy was very foolish and he could not understand a simple matter.
  6. They were so nice that they can not be used just as present.
  7. I was too young to have learnt to say “no” to a woman.
  8. She was my very intimate friend and I can’t forget her.
  9. Mina was so lazy that she could not succeed in life.
  10. The water was so dirty that we could not drink it.

Rule-7: And + Sub + desire to/ desired to/ want to/ wanted to….. যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে so that + sub + can/could + V1 … যুক্ত করে Complex এবং to/ in order to + V1 …./ for + Verb + ing দ্বারা Simple Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: He studied hard and wanted to pass.

Complex: He studied hard so that he could pass.

Simple: He studied hard to pass.

2. Compound: The officer left the job and he wanted to avoid punishment.

Complex: The officer left the job so that he could avoid punishment.

Simple: The officer left the job to avoid punishment.

3. Compound: He goes there and desires to buy a pen.

Complex: He goes there so that he can buy a pen.

Simple: He goes there in order to buy a pen.

Exercise For Practice :

  1. He works hard in order to pass the exam.
  2. She went to market so that she could buy a Sari.
  3. The man ran fast and wanted to catch the train.
  4. He works hard to prosper in life.
  5. We eat so that we may live well.
  6. I went there to see my friend.
  7. I read more and I wanted to make a good result.
  8. The lady wrote letters to the writes so that she might a have a lunch from him.
  9. Ambia sold her hair to buy a gift for Akkas.
  10. The authoress wanted quiet isolation so that she could do some troublesome writing.

Rule-8: Not only…… but also যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Besides + Verb + ing …., Sub + Verb + …. যুক্ত করে Simple Sentence এবং When/As/Since যুক্ত করে Complex Sentence -এ রূপান্তর করা হয়।

Example :

1. Compound: I gave him not only money but also good advice.

Simple: Besides giving him money, I gave him good advice.

Complex: When I gave him money, I gave him good advice.

2. Compound: He not only robbed the passenger but also murdered him.

Simple: Besides robbing the passenger, he murdered him.

Complex: When he robbed the passenger, he murdered him.

3. Compound: He ate not only a mango but also an apple.

Simple: Besides eating a mango he ate an apple.

Complex: When he ate a mango, he ate an apple.

Transform the following sentences from Compound to Complex.

  1. Drink milk and you will get vitamin.
  2. The criminal was repentant and he was pardoned.
  3. The man has lost all his teeth and as a result he cannot eat solid food.
  4. Attend the college regularly and you will get better education.
  5. The girl wanted to get the best prize and for this she worked hard.
  6. You helped me; otherwise I would have been ruined.
  7. He worked hard but failed.
  8. All the boys should pass the examination and we hope it.
  9. There was water everywhere around them but they had not a drop to drink.
  10. He left the country but the reason was mysterious.
  11. Do and die.
  12. Speak the truth and I will let you go.
  13. Follow my example and I will let you go.
  14. Their throats were very dry and they could not speak.
  15. I paid the bill and I had no money in my pocket.
  16. Do or die.
  17. There were many students and they all shouted.
  18. The man saw the tiger and went away.
  19. The doctor did his best for the patient but could not save him.
  20. He is about eighty; yet he moves freely.
  21. Drive carefully or there may be accident.
  22. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
  23. Smoking causes cancer and this is well known.
  24. The door opened and he stepped in.
  25. Our teachers love us and we respect them.
  26. He spoke very fast and we could not follow him.
  27. Do as I suggest you or you will suffer.
  28. Many women were present there and all of them wept to hear the news.
  29. He had vast knowledge and therefore he was made chairman.
  30. The door opened and he stepped in.
  31. Speak the truth and I will let you go.
  32. Waste not, want not
  33. Walk fast or you cannot get the train.
  34. A boy stole my watch and I could recognize him.
  35. He is honest and it is fact.
  36. He behaved rough; yet he was pardoned.
  37. Hold your tongue or I will turn you out from the class room.
  38. Man is mortal and it is true.
  39. He had finished the work and took rest.
  40. It disturbed me but I did not know the reason.

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