Verb (ক্রিয়া বা কাজ):
Verb কাকে বলে? কত প্রকার ও কি কি?
যে শব্দ দ্বারা কোন প্রকার কাজ করা/হওয়া বুঝায় তাকেই Verb বলে। যেমন, go, eat, sleep, buy, sell, walk, run, see, play, write, give etc.
Verb কে ইংরেজি sentence এর হৃদয় বলা হয়। Verb ছাড়া কোন sentence গঠন করা সম্ভব নয়।
The verb is an important part of speech. Without the verb, no sentence can be formed. It shows a physical or mental action.
- We play cricket.
- He writes a letter.
- He gave me a glass of water.
verb is a word or a combination of words that indicates action or a state of being or condition. A verb is the part of a sentence that tells us what the subject performs. Verbs are the hearts of English sentences.
Verbs are related to a lot of other factors like the subject, person, number, tense, mood, voice, etc.
Basic Forms of Verbs
There are six basic forms of verbs. These forms are as follows:
- Base form: Children play in the field.
- Infinitive: Tell them not to play
- Past tense: They played football yesterday.
- Past participle: I have eaten a burger.
- Present participle: I saw them playing with him today.
- Gerund: Swimming is the best exercise.
Different Types of Verbs
- Main/Base Verb
- Regular/Weak Verb
- Irregular/Strong Verb
- Transitive Verb
- Intransitive Verb
- Weak Verb
- Strong Verb
- Finite Verbs
- Non-finite Verbs
- Action Verbs
- Linking Verb
- Auxiliary Verbs
- Modal Verbs
- Reflexive Verb
- Ergative Verb
- Phrasal Verb
- Lexical Verb
- Delexical Verb
- Stative/Being Verb
- Dynamic Verb
- Non-continuous Verb
Verbs are of two types:
- Finite Verb
- Non-Finite Verb
Finite Verb বাক্যের প্রধান verb হতে পারে এবং বাক্য গঠনের ক্ষেত্রে subject এর number এবং person এর সাহায্যে এই verb এর form নির্ধারণ করা হয়।
A Finite verb can come as the main verb in a sentence, and it changes according to the tenses of the action and the number and person of the subject.
Example: Afroza works in a bank.
Non-finite verb কখনো main verb হতে পারে না। Non-finite verb বাক্যে সাধারণত adjective অথবা adverb হিসেবে কাজ করে কিন্তু verb হিসেবে নয়।
Non-finite verbs can’t be main verbs.
Example: Coming home, I saw the man running away.
There are three types of non-finite verbs.
- Infinitives: to do, to eat, to drink, to dance
- Participles: doing, done, eating, eaten, drinking, drunk
- Gerunds: walking, swimming, running
Action verb, Subject এর কাজকে বর্ণনা করে। যেকোন কাজকেই action verb হিসেবে বিবেচনা করা যায়।
Action verbs express actions. They complete the sentence and describe the subject’s action.
- I’ll do my work.
- She watches TV.
Action verbs are two types:
- Transitive verbs
- Intransitive verbs
Transitive verb সবসময় একটি direct object দাবি করে। Direct object না আসলে যে বাক্যটি অসুম্পূর্ন মনে হয়, সেই বাক্যে transitive verb ব্যবহৃত হয়।
- He is watching (এখানে, টেলিভিশন একটি direct object. এটি ছাড়া বাক্য অসুম্পূর্ন।)
- I saw a (এখানে, Tiger একটি object.)
Intransitive verb এর কোন object প্রয়োজন হয় না। তারা নিজে নিজেই বাক্য সম্পূর্ণ করতে পারে।
They don’t have a direct object.
- He reached.
- He goes to school.
Linking verb সাধারণত ওই সকল verb কে বুঝায় যেগুলো কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন করে না বরং subject এর সাথে বাক্যের বাকি অংশের যোগাযোগ স্থাপন করে। সাধারণত, Be verb গুলো যখন main verb হিসেবে sentence এ ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন সেগুলোকে Linking Verbs বলা যায়।
Linking Verbs can behave both either main verbs or auxiliary verbs. They do not refer to actions, but represent a state of being, need, opinion, desire or senses. For example, be verbs (am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had….) are the example of no-action verbs. Smell, look, taste, sound, etc. are also called no-action verbs.
- He is a teacher.
- They have three children.
Auxiliary Verb হচ্ছে সাহায্যকারী verb। তারা present participle এবং past participle কে বাক্যে verb হিসেবে কাজ করতে সাহায্য করে। তাদের নিজস্ব কোন সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ না থাকলেও ব্যাকরণগত দিক থেকে বাক্যের গঠণ নির্মানে তাদের গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ভূমিকা রয়েছে।
Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs. It helps another verb to form its mood, voice, tense, etc. They don’t have any meaning on their own, but they are very important to make the grammatical structure of the sentences. They help the main verbs.
They are two types:
Have, Do, and Be are known as primary auxiliaries.
Have, has, had, having, had not .
Example: He has bought a new car. (এখানে has একটি auxiliary verb)
Do, does, done, to do, did, did not, does not, etc.
Example: He does not keep his work for tomorrow.
Am, is, are, was, were, be, to be, been, was not, were not, etc.
Example: He is watching the tournament.
Modal Auxiliary সাধারণত মুল verb এর অর্থকে প্রভাবিত করে কিন্তু তারাও সাহায্যকারী verb হিসেবেই বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
A modal auxiliary modifies the meaning of the main verb in some way. Shall, should, can, could, may, might, ought, ought to, will, would, must, etc. are known as modal auxiliary verbs.
- He may come home tomorrow.
- You should not run in the sun.
- You can take rest now.
Some Other Verbs:
The base verb is the form of a verb where it has no ending (-ing, -ed, -en) added to it. It is also called the Root Verb since it is the very root form of a verb.
- I go to school every day.
- You run a mile every morning.
- Do your homework.
The Verbs that follow the most usual conjugations are considered Regular Verbs. It is regular since it abides by most if not all of the regular grammar rules there are.
- Rehan plays cricket.
- Tam called out my name.
- You really walked all the way back?
The Verbs that have irregularities in terms of following grammar rules are Irregular Verbs, in general.
- Do the dishes.
- I hardly ever drink enough water in a day.
- She drove all the way back.
Verbs that end with “-d” and “-t” in their Past Indefinite and Past Participle form are Weak Verbs. There is a tendency to associate Weak Verbs with Regular Verbs but not all Weak Verbs are Regular Verbs in the English language.
|Present Indefinite||Past Indefinite|
Strong Verbs are those in which the vowels in the verb stem changes from “i” to “a” to “u” in the Present Indefinite to Past Indefinite to Past Participle form of Verbs.
|Present Indefinite||Past Indefinite||Past Participle|
Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs. An auxiliary verb extends the main verb by helping to show time, tense, and possibility. The auxiliary verbs are – be verbs, have, and do.
They are used in the continuous (progressive) and perfect tenses.
Linking verbs work as main verbs in the sentence, but auxiliary verbs help main verbs.
Do is an auxiliary verb that is used to ask questions, to express negation, to provide emphasis, and more.
- Alex is going to school.
- They are walking in the park.
- I have seen a movie.
- Do you drink tea?
- Don’t waste your time.
- Please, do submit your assignments.
A modal verb is a kind of auxiliary verb. It assists the main verb to indicate possibility, potentiality, ability, permission, expectation, and obligation.
The modal verbs are can, could, must, may, might, ought to, shall, should, will, would.
- I may want to talk to you again.
- They must play their best game to win.
- She should call him.
- I will go there.
When the Subject and the Object are the same and the Verb reflects on the Subject, that is the Reflexive Verb. These Verbs are often used with Reflexive Pronouns like – myself, himself, herself, itself etc.
- He has done it himself.
- I’ll watch it myself.
Ergative Verbs can be used as Transitive and Intransitive Verb. They are also called Labile Verb in English.
|Intransitive Verbs||Transitive Verbs|
|The door opens.||I opened the door.|
|The bell rang.||She rang the bell.|
|The light is fused.||They fused the lights.|
|The whistle blew.||Tom blew the whistle.|
An idiomatic phrase consisting of a Verb and another element, most likely an Adverb or a Preposition is called a Phrasal Verb.
- She broke down in tears.
- Don’t look down upon the poor.
- I’ll see to it.
Lexical Verb is the main or principal verb of a sentence which typically takes the major responsibility of a Verb that represents the action of the Noun or Pronoun.
- He ran to his father.
- I laughed out loud.
- Rina tried her best.
Delexical Verbs lack importance when it comes to meaning since these Verbs hardly have meanings of their own when used individually. The meaning is taken out of the Verbs and put into the Noun. Take, have, make, give etc. are Delexical Verbs.
- He took a shower.
- I had a cold drink.
- She made some arrangements.
The Verbs that describe the state of being are called Stative or Being Verbs.
- I need some boxes.
- You belong to the pomp and power.
- He smells danger.
- They remember what happened that day.
The Verbs that entail continuous or progressive action of the Subject are called Dynamic or Fientive Verbs. They express the Subject’s state of being on the move.
- He’s running fast.
- Keep hitting the ball hard.
- The dog goes for a walk every afternoon.
The Verbs that are usually never used in their continuous forms are called Non-continuous Verbs.
|I like to swim.
|I’m liking to swim.
|I love to do the chords.
|I’m loving to do the chords.
|He does not hate you.
|He’s hating you.
|She just feels a bit dizzy, no need to worry.
|She’s just feeling a bit dizzy.
The Verbs that focus intensely on just the Subject are called Intensive Verbs. Intensive Verbs are also called Linking or Copular Verbs.
- You seem happy.
- It appears to be just perfect.
- She looks stunning.
- He’s become rather irritable.
All the Verbs that do not focus intensively on just the Subject (as the Intensive Verbs) of the sentence are Extensive Verbs.
- He loves her.
- She runs too fast.
- Ron sells fish.
A participle is a Verb form where they retain some of the characteristics and functions of both Verbs and adopt those of the Adjectives.
Present Participle (Verb + -ing)
- Have I become a laughing stock?
- Cycling is a well-rounded exercise.
- I have taken a hint.
- Have you given it enough thought?
Perfect Participle (Having + Past Participle)
- Having said that, I was quite worried.
- Having stepped out of my comfort zone, I saw a whole new world.
The Verbs having -ing endings that function like Nouns in sentences are called Gerunds.
- Smoking is injurious to health.
- Walking is good for health.
- I love swimming.
The ‘to + Verb’ forms where the Verbs are at their base or stem forms while they function as Nouns, Adjectives or Adverbs instead of Verbs.
- I wanted to help you out.
- Are you trying to go there?
- I just love to flaunt my new Ferarri.