GRAMMAR

Prefix And Suffix; Rules with Exercise

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Prefix (উপসর্গ):

যে Letter বা Letter সমষ্টি কোন Word এর পূর্বে যুক্ত হয়ে উহার কতকটা পরিবর্তন সাধন করে, তাকে Prefix বলে।
কোন ওয়ার্ড-এর সাথে যুক্ত না হলে, শুধু Prefix এর কোন পূর্ন অর্থ নেই। যেমন: Un, dis, mis, in ইত্যাদি।
Prefix + Word = New Word / Changed Word
un + necessary = unnecessary
dis + favour = disfavour
mis + take = mistake
in + correct = incorrect

 

Suffix (প্রত্যয়):

যে Letter বা Letter সমষ্টি কোন Word এর শেষে বা অন্তে যুক্ত হয়ে উহার কতকটা পরিবর্তন সাধন করে, তাকেSuffix বলে।
Prefix-এর মত Suffix-এর ও নিজস্ব কোন অর্থ নেই। কিন্তু, এরা উভয়েই Word-কে ভিন্ন মাএা প্রদান করে।
Word + Suffix = New Word / Changed Word
rapid + ly = rapidly
kinf +ness = kindness
examine + tion = ezamination
care + ful = careful
Prefix বা Suffix কোনটিরই নিজস্ব কোন শাব্দিক অর্থ নেই। উহারা কেবল অন্য শব্দের সাথে যুক্ত হয়ে ঐ শব্দে পরিবর্তন ঘটায়। Prefix মূল শব্দে পূর্বে এবং Suffix মুল শব্দের পরে যুক্ত হয়। Prefix + Root Word + Suffix

 

Prefix বা Suffix যুক্ত করে একই শব্দকে বিভিন্নভাবে পরিবর্তন করে বিভিন্ন বাক্যে বিভিন্ন Part of Speech রূপে ব্যবহার করা যায়।
She is a beauty(n), She is a beautiful(adj) girl, This tree beautifies(v) the house. ইত্যাদি।

বাক্যে একটি Finite Verb অত্যাবশ্যক
Verb-এর Subject এবং Object হিসাবে Noun বা Pronoun বা Noun-এর সমতূল্য Wordবসবে। এছাড়াও অন্যান্য Noun ও বাক্যে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। সুতরাং, একটি বাক্যে সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ন এবং প্রধান ভূমিকা পালনকারী Word হচ্ছে Noun এবং Verb.

 

Ad-word আসে Noun বা Verb-কেই Qualify বা Modify করতে। Noun বা Verb ছাড়া Ad-word গুলো নিস্প্রয়োজন।
Connector বিশেষ করে Preposition, Noun ছাড়া ব্যবহৃত হয়না। Conjunction অবশ্য যে কোন Part of Speech-কে যুক্ত করে।
Interjectionভিন্নধর্মী Word। বাক্যে এর ব্যবহার খুবই কম গুরুত্বপূর্ন ।
Word-এর সঠিক চরিএ বুঝে বাক্যে সার্থক প্রয়োগের দক্ষতাই ভাষায় দখল।

 

ইংরেজি ভাষায় যে সমস্ত suffix এবং prefix বেশী ব্যবহৃত হয়, তার মধ্যে al, ance, be, dis, ee, er, ful, ic, il/in/im/ir, ing, ish, less, ly, ment, ness, ous, pre, s/es, ship, sion/tion,ion, y/ey ইত্যাদি উল্লেখযোগ্য।

1. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘able/ible’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা যায়:
Noun + able/ible = Adjective

comfort + able = comfortable
answer + able = answerable

sense + ible = sensible

 

2. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘able/ible’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা যায়ঃ
Verb + able/ible = Adjective

bear + able = bearable
drink + able = drinkable

prefer + able =preferable
response + ible = responsible

 

3. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘al’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা যায়:
Noun + al = Adjective

accident + al = accidental
digit + al = digital

verb + al = verbal

 

4. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘al’ যোগ করে Noun গঠন করা হয়:
Verb + al = Noun

approve + al =approval

propose + al = proposal
dismiss + al = dismissal

try + al = trial

 

5. Noun বা Adjective-এর সাথে prefix ‘be’ যোগ করে Verb গঠন করা যায়:

Be + Noun / Adjective = Verb
be + cloud = becloud

be + friend = befriend
be + fall = befall

be + fit = befit

 

6. Verb-এর সাথে prefix ‘dis’ যোগ করে বিপরীত শব্দ গঠন করা যায়:
dis + Verb = Opposite Word

dis + agree = disagree

dis + allow = disallow
dis + obey = disobey

dis + like = dislike

 

7. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘ee’ যোগ করে Noun গঠন করা যায়:
Verb + ee = Noun

address + ee = addressee

allot + ee = allotee
employ + ee = employee

pay + ee = payee

 

8. Noun বা Adjective-এর সাথে prefix ‘en’ যোগ করে Verb গঠন করা যায়:

en + Noun /Adjective = Verb

en + able = enable

en + danger = endanger
en + joy = enjoy

en + title = entitle

 

9. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘r/er’ যোগ করে Noun গঠন করা যায়:
Verb + er = Noun

drive + r = driver

fight + er = fighter
make + er = maker

write + r = writer

 

10. Adjective বা Adverb-এর সাথে suffix ‘er’ এবং ‘est’ যোগ করে যথাক্রমে Comparative ও Superlative degree গঠন করা যায়:
Adjective / Adverb + er = Comparative

এবং + est = Superlative

big + er = bigger + est = biggest

tall + er = taller + est = tallesttd
fast + er = faster + est = fastest

 

11. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘ful’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + ful = Adjective

beauty + ful = beautiful

duty + ful + dutiful
use + ful = useful

fruit + ful = fruitful

 

12. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘ian’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + ian = Adjective

Canada + ian = Canadian

Egypt + ian + Egyptian
India + ian = Indian

 

13. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘ic’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + ic = Adjective

Arab + ic = Arabic

Islam + ic + Islamic
Prose + ic = Prosaic

 

14. Adjective-এর সাথে prefix ‘il/im/in/ir’ যোগ করে Opposite Adjective গঠন করা যায়:

il/im/in/ir + Adjective = Opposite Adjective
il + legal = illegal

im + moral = immoral
in + attentive = inattentive

ir + regular = irregular

 

15. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘ing’ যোগ করে Verb-এর Gerund (=Noun) অথবা Present Participle Form গঠন করা হয়:
Verb + ing = Gerund (=Noun)/Present Participle

write + ing = writing

read + ing = reading
dance + ing = dancing

walk + ing = walking

 

16. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘less’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + less = Adjective

aim + less = aimless

help + less + helpless
hope + less = hopeless

life + less = lifeless

 

17. Adjective-এর সাথে suffix ‘ly’ যোগ করে Adverb গঠন করা হয়:
Adjective + ly = Adverb

active + ly = actively

slow + ly + slowly
helpful + ly = helpfully

cordial + ly = cordially

 

18. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘ment’ যোগ করে Noun গঠন করা হয়:
Verb + ment = Noun

advance + ment = advancement

agree + ment = agreement
announce + ment = announcement

commit + ment = commitment

 

19. Adjective-এর সাথে suffix ‘ness’ যোগ করে Noun গঠন করা হয়:
Adject + ness = Noun

aware + ness = awareness

fresh + ness = freshness
dark + ness = darkness

white + ness = whiteness

 

20. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘ous’ যোগ করে adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + ous = Adjective

courage + ous = courageous

danger + ous = dangerous
glory + ous = glorious

marvel + ous = marvelous

 

21. Singular Countable Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘s/es’ যোগ করে Plural Form গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + s /es = Plural Form

apple + s = apples

boy + s = boys

mango + es = mangoes

cow + s = cows

 

22. Verb-এর Present Form-এর সাথে suffix ‘s/es’ যোগ করে Singular Verb গঠন করা হয়ঃ
Verb + s / es = Singular Form

come + s = comes

go + es = goes
read + s = reads

play + s = plays

 

23. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘ship’ যোগ করে Abstract Noun গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + ship = Abstract Noun

fellow + ship = fellowship

owner + ship = ownership
lord + ship = lordship

partner + ship = partnership

 

24. Verb-এর সাথে suffix ‘ion/sion/tion’ যোগ করে Abstract Noun গঠন করা হয়ঃ
Verb + ion/sion/tio = Abstract Noun

absorb + tion = absorption

accommodate + ion = accommodation
compel + sion = compulsion

civilize + tion = civilization

 

25. Adjective-এর সাথে prefix ‘un’ যোগ করে Antonym (বিপরীত শব্দ) গঠন করা যায়:
un + Adjective = Antonym

un + able = unable

un + common = uncommon
un + happy = unhappy

un + kind = unkind

 

26. Noun-এর সাথে suffix ‘y/ey’ যোগ করে Adjective গঠন করা হয়:
Noun + y/ey = Adjective

air + y = airy
clay + ey = clayey

sun + y = sunny
storm + y = stormy

wealth + y = wealthy

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 1

Sound health is the (a)—— (come)—— of physical exercise in a (b)—— (regulate)—— form. (c)—— (regulate)—— form of exercise or (d)——(exercise)—— is injurious to health. Remember that if you take physical exercise, you must not be (e)—— (regular)——. Physical exercise increases our appetite and improves (f)—— (digest)—— power. If anybody suffers from (g)—— (digest)—— he should take physical exercise. Proper (h)—— (digest)—— of food removes his loss of appetite. Physical exercise removes (i)—— (constipate)—— and helps proper blood (j)—— (circulate).

Answer-1
a) outcome b) regulated c) Unregulated d) over-exercise e) irregular f) digestive g) indigestion h) digestion i) constipation j) circulation.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 2

You should read throughout the year. In order to be sure of doing well in the examination you have to pay (a)—— (attend)—— to studies from the very beginning of the year. Regular practice can (b)—— (sure)—— your good result. But if you are (c)—— (attend)—— and irregular, you cannot expect to do so. Bear in mind that (d)—— (regular)—— is the cause of your (e)—— (satisfactory)—— result. Nobody can expect a good result in the examination without good (f)——(prepare).——You should be (g)—— (prepare)—— for it well-ahead of the schedule. Some students remain (h)—— (prepare)—— for the examination even it is imminent. As a part of (i)—— (prepare)—— step they go to the teachers or a concise (j)—— (suggest)——.
Answer-2
a) attention b) ensure c) inattentive d) irregularity e) unsatisfactory f) preparation g) prepared h) unprepared i) preparatory j) suggestion.

 

Suffix- Prefix practice:3

King Solomon had a great (a)—— (repute)—— for his (b)—— (wise). Once the Queen of Sheba wanted to test how wise he was. He brought two kinds of flowers. One was the floral wreath of (c)——(nature)—— flower and the other was of (d)—— (artifice)—— flower. Sheba asked the king to (e)—— (different)—— between the flower wreaths. Solomon did not answer (f)—— (instant)——. He thought for a while. There were bees outside. He told someone to open the window and keep it (g)—— (close)——. The bees came in and sat on the artificial flowers. The wreaths could be (h)—— (identify)—— by Solomon. Thus the (i)—— (indentify)—— of real flowers by the king made queen (j)—— ( great)—— impressed.
Answer-3
a) reputation b) wisdom c) natural d) artificial e) differentiate f) instantly g) unclosed h) indentified i) identification j) greatly.

 

 Suffix- Prefix Practice: 4

Of the four language skills, listening is the first and (a)—— (fore)—— one. It is (b)—— (cause)—— a child learns its mother tongue first by listening to its mother. Then with the (c)—— (grow)—— of age, a child comes in contact with others and learns the vocabulary and how to use them (d)—— (practical)——. Thus it learns (e)—— (speak)—— to mother and then to others. It is (f)—— (scientific)—— observed that speaking is the second skill of the four. A child is first a (g)—— (listen)——. Then it becomes a (h)—— (speak)—— while mother listens. Thus they both (i)—— (change)—— their ideas and (j)—— (eventual)—— the child learns its mother tongue.
Answer-4
a) foremost b) because c) growth d) practically e) speaking f) scientifically g) listener h) speaker i) exchange j) eventually.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice :5

In the past children used to play in the open field before or after school hours. But now our children keep (a) —— (door) —— before the TV or computer. They watch TV or play games on computer. Children’s (b) —— (fond) —— for use of computer has (c) —— (recent) —— increased to a very great extent. Some prefer computer games to others programs. This (d) —— (prefer) —— is not a good habit. It makes them (e) —— (attentive) ——to studies and very often (f) —— (active) ——. So they should not keep bent on computer for long hours. They think that they are not spending time in (g) —— (idle) ——. Though this in not the (h) —— (waste) —— of time, it is the spending of mental energy. They do not undergo any exertion (i) —— (physical) —— and as a result they become (j) —— (mental) —— tired.
Answer-5
a) indoors b) fondness c) recently d) preference e) inattentive f) inactive g) idleness h) wastage i) physically j) mentally

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 6

Bangladesh is an (a) —— (populated) —— country. Her (b) —— (dense) —— of population per square mile is very high. The per capita income of people is also low. Majority people live here below (c) —— (poor) —— line. Moreover, there are lots of problems that are the (d) —— (hinder) —— to her development. Political (e) —— (rest) —— is one of them. We are living in a (f) —— (democrat) —— country. We have many (g) —— (achieve) —— though we live in (h) —— (sufficient) ——. The country is gradually advancing towards (i) —— (prosper) ——. But observing hartal has become a bad political culture in our country. It harms economy and causes a great suffering to (j) —— (politics) —— people. We should give up the practice of hartal for our own interest.
Answer-6
a) overpopulated b) density c) poverty d) hindrance e) unrest f) democratic g) achievements h) insufficiency i) prosperity j) non-political.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 7

Man can have (a) —— (popular) —— by means of service to people. People in power can have honour. But this honour will not last long if their behaviour is not good. When common people are (b) —— (internal) ——hurt by their (c) —— (behaviour) ——, usually they do not express their feeling in front of them. But they make (d) —— (criticize) —— of their manners and (e) —— (regard) —— them later. The (f) —— (elder) —— people should be honoured by the juniors or the young people in the society. In the (g) —— (develop) —— countries the people over sixty are called senior citizens and they are everywhere respected (h) —— (according) ——. In the (j) —— (develop) —— countries we expect this kind of (j) —— (treat) ——to the seniors.

Answer-7
a) popularity b) internally c) misbehaviour d) criticism e) disregard f) elderly g) developed h) accordingly i) developing j) treatment.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 8

In order to (a) —— (material) —— your dream, you need (b) —— (determine) —— and efforts. Nothing is (c) —— (achieve) —— in this world without hard work. Nothing is (d) —— (achieve) —— for those who are blessed with (e) —— (common) —— abilities. They are very fortunate. It is a bad habit to put off the lesson for tomorrow. Good students never do this. It is (f) —— (neglect) ——of one’s duty. If you are not (g) —— (duty) ——, you will never do it (h) —— (dutiful) —— is a very bad practice that brings about (i) ——(adverse) —— in life. To become (j) —— (success) —— in life, you must be dutiful.
Answer-8
a) materialize b) determination c) achievable d) unachievable e) uncommon f) negligence g) undutiful h) Undutifulness i) adversity j) successful.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 9

Patriots love their country more than their lives. (a) ——- (patriot) ——- is a virtue. Men without patriotism can do anything (b) ——- (harm) ——- to the country. Our history shows that (c) ——- (patriot) ——- men made the nation subservient to the overseas (d) ——- (rule) ——-. They are more dangerous than (e) ——- (venom) ——- snakes. They did not want our (f) ——- (dependent) ——-. They are traitors. They are enemies. They gave (g) ——- (assist) ——- to the Pakistani soldiers. There is no country in the world where people quarrel among themselves over the question of independence. We were very (h) ——- (fortunate) ——- to have such people. However. after so many years of independence, we should remove our (i) ——- (differ) ——- and work for the country (j) ——- (unite) ——-.
Answer-9
a) Patriotism b) harmful c) unpatriotic d) rulers e) venomous f) independence g) assistance h) unfortunate i) differences j) unitedly.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 10

Man makes him worthy and (b) ——- (honor) ——-. Without being religious, one cannot be (c) ——- (spirit) ——- rich and (d) ——- (light) ——-. Religion helps to build up one’s moral character. So it is said that (e) ——- (moral) ——- has its root in religion. We should teach our children to become religious to build up a happy and (f) ——- (peace) ——- career. Love for only (g) ——- (world) ——- pleasure cannot give real peace. It rather brings (h) ——- (frustrate) ——-. (i) ——- (religious) ——- people only hanker after worldly pleasure. They may (j) ——- (believe) ——- in God. So try to follow your religion.Religion leads us to the path of truth. The habit and manners of a (a) ——- (religion) ——-
Answer-10
a) religious b) honorable c) spiritually d) enlightened e) morality f) peaceful g) worldly h) frustration i) Irreligious j) disbelieve.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 11

Courtesy is a virtue in man. It goes without saying that courtesy costs nothing but gives a lot. So you should be courteous. That is you must have (a) ——- (polite) ——-. People will (b) ——- (like) ——- and (c) ——- (respect) ——- you if your (d) ——- (courteous) ——-. Nobody likes (e) ——- (courtesy) ——-. Try to be gentle from your student life. When we come across a (f) ——- (strange) ——-, we should not be (g) ——- (friend) ——- towards him. If the stranger is a (h) ——- (tour) ——-, we should receive him (i) ——- (cordial) ——-. If he comes to visit our locality, We should (j) ——- (company) ——- him to see the important spots.
Answer-11
a) politeness b) dislike c) disrespect d) discourteous e) discourtesy f) stranger g) unfriendly h) tourist i) cordially j) accompany.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 12

Hazrat Muhammad (Sm.) is the last prophet of Allah and the (a) lead of all prophets. He is the greatest of men and (b) teach ever born on the earth. Before his birth Arabia was steeped in (c) dark , ignorance and superstition. The Arabs were ignorant and wicked and they led (d) beast lives. They were (e) worship of many gods and goddesses. He got no opportunity for learning. But he was taught much higher things than book knowledge by nature and the (f) seen hand of Allah. From his (g) boy he was (h) thought, honest and (i) truth . He was called Al-Amin or the (j) trust one.

Answer-12   a. leader b. teachers c. darkness d. beastly e. worshippers f. unseen g. boyhood h. thoughtful i. truthful j. truthful.

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 13

Ours is a big (a) industry area in the country. Life of our area is (b) frequent paralyzed due to the failure of electric supply. The (c) own of both of the factories and industries are having a crucial time because their (d) product have been hampered much due to frequent (e) fail of electric supply. But they have to pay the wage (f) regular. Moreover, when there is (g) dark all around, thieves and anti-social people get opportunity to steal anything. As a result theft, (h) robber and other anti- social activities have increased. We have (i) frequent attention to the local WAPDA office but of no use. We, therefore, draw the attention of the WAPDA to look into the matter and (j) sure the regular supply of electricity in our locality.

Answer-13  a. industrial, b. frequently c. owners d. productions e. failure f. regularly g. darkness h. robbery i. frequently j. ensure

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 14

The motive behind all (a)——- invent is to make human life (b) ———- comfort . But if they are not used (c)——- proper , they become the source of (d)———- comports (behave). Similarly, loud speaker was invented to reach the voice of the (e)——— speak to all the audience in a function. But now-a-days this (f) ————use instrument has turned into an object of annoyance. The students are the worst (g) ———–suffer as they fail to concentrate their attention to study. The owner (h) ————entire forget that the (i) ————education institutions, offices, hospitals and other (j)———— organizes are situated on the streets.

Answer-14 a. inventions b. comfortable c. properly d. discomfort e. speakers f. useful g. sufferers g. entirely h. entirely i. educational j. organizations

 

Suffix- Prefix Practice: 15

(a)———- Fail in English in our country is a common matter. There are many reasons of failure of the students in English and the reasons are not far to seek. (b)———– First our educational system is (c)————- defect . The English text books for the students of our country are not (d)————- suit for them. Secondly the students are not motivated / inspired to learn English. They think that it is (e)————- necessary to spend time in learning English. Moreover, as English is a foreign language it is very difficult to learn. So they (f)—————- like learning English. They think it is mare (g)————– waste of time. Thirdly most of the English (h)————- teach are not good at English. They are (i)————— competent. Fourthly the students only cram the answers. In the exam hall they forget what they have crammed. So the answers they write are (j)————- correct .

Answer-1 5  (a) Failure (b) Firstly (c) defective (d) suitable (e) unnecessary (f) dislike (g) wasting/wastage (h) teachers (i) incompetent (j) incorrect

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